Sir Melville Macnaghten

JACK THE RIPPER ‘THE DEMENTED GENIUS’ HIS DEEDS AND TIMES

32 AARON MORDKE KOSMINSKI

 

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This is how Aaron Mordke Kosminski became a known suspect to Ripperologists.   In a police report dated February 1894, Sir Melville Macnaghten, who subsequently retired as Assistant Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police, identified three suspects that included Kosminski. Criminals And Crime was published by Sir Robert Anderson in 1907. He had retired as Metropolitan Police Assistant Commissioner in 1901. In Criminals And Crime, Anderson claimed that the Ripper ‘had been safely caged in an asylum home’. Criminals And Crime had a sequel by Anderson called The Lighter Side Of My Official Life. This was published in 1910. This time Anderson revealed that ‘the suspect had been identified at the Seaside Home’.   There is a sentence in the memoir that deserves to be reproduced in full. ‘I will merely add that the only person who ever had a good view of the murderer unhesitatingly identified the suspect the instant he was confronted with him; but he refused to give evidence against him.’

There is more. In 1959 TV presenter and journalist Dan Farson discovered an alternative copy of the 1894 report by Macnaghten. This second copy was the property of Lady Aberconway and differed slightly from the copy held in Scotland Yard. In the first copy Macnaghten describes Kominsky as a ‘strong suspect’. In the Aberconway version Macnaghten states, ‘This man in appearance strongly resembled the individual seen by the City PC near Mitre Square’.  In both versions Macnaghten provides information about Kosminski.   He lived in Whitechapel, had a ‘great hatred of women’ and ‘strong homicidal tendencies’. Because of ‘many years indulgence in solitary vices’ Kosminski had become insane.

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There is still more.   In 1980 the daughter of Chief Inspector Donald Sutherland Swanson died and amongst what she left to her nephew and grandson was a copy of The Lighter Side Of My Official Life by Anderson. Swanson had made notes in the margins. At the bottom of page 138 he wrote that as well as the witness who saw the Ripper ‘the suspect was also a Jew and also because his evidence would convict the suspect, and witness would be the means of murderer being hanged which he did not wish to be left in his mind.’  Swanson added in the margin, ‘And after this identification which suspect knew, no other murder took place’. At the back of the book Swanson, like Anderson, referred to the suspect being identified at the Seaside Home. According to Swanson, the suspect Kosminski was watched by the police at the home of his brother-in-law before ‘in a very short time’ he was referred to Stepney Workhouse and then Colney Hatch asylum ‘where he died shortly afterwards’.

All this deserves a summary. A retired senior policeman states that the Ripper was Jewish and known to the police. One of his colleagues writes that the suspect was identified by another Jew who was reluctant to give evidence, and another confirms the name of the suspect as Kosminski and explains what happened to the suspect.   It is not, though, that simple.   The loose ends and blind alleys contained within the three records have led Ripperologists around in circles for the last twenty years.

Kosminski did not die shortly after he was identified as Jack the Ripper.  Swanson made an error. Kosminski was committed to Colney Hatch in 1891 and lived there for another 28 years. His keepers described him as excitable but not violent. The symptoms of his insanity included a refusal to work, wash and accept prepared food.  He preferred to eat what he found in gutters.  His weight in 1919, the last time Kosminski was weighed, was recorded as six stone twelve pounds.   It is possible that his symptoms and emaciation appeared after he stopped or was prevented from killing women. This explanation, though, feels convenient and glib. In 1891, Jacob Cohen certified the committal of his brother-in-law Kosminski to an asylum. Cohen stated that his brother-in-law had not done any work for years. It is difficult to imagine an unemployed and already strange Kosminski persuading prostitutes that he could pay for sex.

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There is doubt about whether Kosminski is the correct insane Jewish suspect. The unrelated David Cohen was also committed to an asylum for being generally unpleasant and excitable. Cohen died soon after his committal. There is not other evidence, though, against Cohen. He was identified as a possible suspect before the name Kosminski was located in asylum records.

Somewhat baffling, there has been debate about when the identification took place. The ‘Seaside Home’ phrase by Anderson is recognised as police vernacular for the Convalescent Police Seaside Home, 51 Clarendon Villas, Hove.   The Home opened in March 1890, and Kominski was committed to a workhouse on the 4th February 1891. Before the end of the month he was committed to Colney Hatch Asylum.  If he was observed for a few days after the identification, Kosminski was not interviewed before January 1891.

Two names have been nominated as the witness who identified Kosminski as Jack the Ripper. They are the two witnesses known to be Jewish. Joseph Lawende saw a man in Mitre Square talking to Catherine Eddowes shortly before she was murdered. Israel Schwarz witnessed a man throwing Liz Stride to the ground the night she was killed. The favourite is Joseph Lawende because Swanson referred to Kosminski being observed day and night by City Police before he was committed to a workhouse. The murder of Eddowes occurred in the area covered by the City Police. Liz Stride was murdered in Whitechapel, which made it a matter for the Metropolitan Police. This reference to the City Police observing the house of the brother-in-law implies that the witness is Lawende. He was in the City area when he saw Catherine Eddowes talking to a man before her death. But the notes of Swanson are unreliable. Swanson alleged incorrectly that Kosminski died shortly after arriving in the asylum.

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Macnaghten mentions that a City PC saw the Ripper at Mitre Square. The PC who reported seeing a victim with a man was PC Smith. He, though, was not at Mitre Square. He was the witness at Berner Street where Liz Stride was murdered.  He was also a member of the Metropolitan Police.

So far we have unreliable and inconsistent accounts from three senior policemen that probably spent most of their careers avoiding confrontations with criminals. Constructing theories around assertions that may or may not be true is difficult. In The Complete History of Jack the Ripper author Philip Sugden makes a honourable and impressive attempt to piece the contradictory evidence together. But he is obliged to accept some of what Anderson, Macnaghten and Swanson alleged and then use it to dismiss their other inconsistent assertions.   The main suspects the police identified are Montague Druitt, Aaron Kosminski, Michael Ostrog, George Chapman and Francis Tumblety.   Apart from Kosminski the list includes a calculating poisoner, a harmless depressive suicide, an American so old and large he defied any witness descriptions of the Ripper, and a con man and trickster.   There is nothing wrong in being curious about the possible clues left by Anderson, Swanson and Macnaghten but neither is there an obligation to have serious regard to the ramblings of retired administrators whose value consisted of their bureaucratic skills. None of the detectives who were closer to what was happening on the streets of Whitechapel confirmed the choice of Kosminski as Jack the Ripper. Inspector Abberline said this after he retired, ‘I know that it has been stated in several quarters that Jack the Ripper was a man who died in a lunatic asylum a few years ago, but there is nothing at all of a tangible nature to support such a theory.’ Or in other words all the analysis by Ripperologists of the thoughts left behind by Anderson, Macnaghten and Swanson is supposition, as are indeed the remarks themselves.

What we have is that three senior policeman suspected a Polish Jew called Kosminski. The same policemen believe he was identified by a witness who refused to testify.   This is what may have happened. Both Anderson and Swanson mention the Seaside Home,  This means the identification took place around the end of 1890. Kosminski was not a physically powerful suspect that developed odd behaviour. He became a target for the police when he was a nuisance, very odd but vulnerable. The Complete History of Jack the Ripper author Philip Sugden asks why it took two years to arrange this identification.   It needed Kosminski to become a nuisance on the streets of Whitechapel, which happened around the time that Anderson was perhaps putting on pressure to have an arrest so that he could retire in glory. The word suspect is inaccurate. A better word was used by Sam Spade in The Maltese Falcon. Because the police are a threat to the protagonists, Spade argues ‘what we need is a patsy, a fall guy’. The man he chose was the popular choice, which is what Kosminski was in 1890. He stank, uttered vile threats and oaths to women, masturbated in public and was not even English.

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Philip Sugden writes ‘it is difficult to know why it was considered necessary to take Kosminski to the Seaside Home…’ The answer could be simple. The police were being secretive because they wanted to frame Kosminski and they wanted safe ground where they could transgress the law. The police collected their man and headed to the seaside for a discrete frame up.   Macnaghten refers to Kosminski being taken to the Seaside Home in secrecy and with difficulty. No other witnesses were called to identify Kosminski, perhaps because the police did not want anyone who could testify that Kosminski was not the Ripper.  The popular choice as witness, Joseph Lawende, did not even have a good view of the Ripper.  He saw him from behind.  Equally unforgiveable, Kosminski was identified without other participants in a line up. I suspect that Lawende refused to cooperate in what was corrupt police behaviour.  Desperate to justify himself, Anderson claimed, and possibly believed, that Lawende refused to testify because he would not betray another Jew. The evidence suggesting malpractice may be thin but if senior policemen write careless nonsense, they deserve what is thrown their way.

Howard Jackson has had seven books published by Red Rattle Books including novels, short stories and collections of film criticism.   If you are interested in original horror and crime fiction and want information about the books of Howard Jackson and the other great titles at Red Rattle Books, click here.

 

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JACK THE RIPPER ‘THE DEMENTED GENIUS’ HIS DEEDS AND TIMES

25 SIR MELVILLE MACNAGHTEN

 

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Sir Melville Leslie Macnaghten acquired a reputation for being amiable and affable. Dressed for dinner he had style and swagger.   He was the youngest of fifteen children. Perhaps his childhood in a large family taught him to expect attention and this gave him confidence with others.   If that was not enough, Sir Melville Leslie Macnaghten was educated at Eton and at Trinity College, Cambridge. His father Elliot Macnaghten was the last Chairman of the East India Company.  Whatever the reasons and influences Melville Leslie always expected his opinions to prevail. In his retirement he translated Ars Poetica into English verse. The work by Horace from 15 BC had existed in English for almost 500 years, and there was even a translation by famous playwright Ben Johnson. None of this deterred a confident policeman who had artistic interests.   Macnaghten was a capable actor who enjoyed the theatre and he was widely read. Those who liked him and appreciated his friendly company would have regarded the old Etonian as a well-rounded gentleman and a credit to his public school.

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Before he was appointed to the post of Assistant Chief Constable CID, Macnaghten managed the estates of his father in India. He was employed as a senior policeman at Scotland Yard from 1889 until 1913. He would have been in post earlier if it had not been for the objections of Sir Charles Warren, Commissioner Metropolitan Police. The impact of Macnaghten on the Ripper investigations is negligible. If we accept what Macnaghten says about the Ripper victims, that there were just five and the last occurred in 1888, then the work of the East End murderer was finished when Macnaghten arrived at Scotland Yard in 1889. Macnaghten is important for two reasons. First, he was an important element in the conflict that existed between Sir Charles Warren and his Assistant Commissioner, James Monro, who was also head of CID. Second, Macnaghten in a confidential report expressed an opinion about the Ripper crimes. The report was discovered after his death and has shaped subsequent thinking.

James Monro and Macnaghten had both spent time in India and they were friends. In 1881 Macnaghten had been attacked by the Indian locals who were puzzled as to why just a few Englishmen owned most of the land in India. The locals were poor, which was another reason why they were being troublesome. Monro was Inspector-General of the Bengal Police when Macnaghten was attacked and, according to the victim, ‘left senseless on the plain’.

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Sir Charles Warren clashed with Monro in Scotland Yard because, as head of CID, Monro reckoned his organisation was entitled to be independent. James Monro reported directly to the Home Secretary, Henry Matthews. Monro wanted an ally in Scotland Yard and he suggested that Macnaghten become an assistant chief constable. When Warren objected to the appointment, Monro resigned and friction continued in the Home Office until Warren also resigned. The resignation happened on the day that the dead body of Mary Jane Kelly was discovered. The exit of Warren from the Metropolitan Police permitted Monro to return to Scotland Yard just two months after he had resigned. Monro was free to recruit his old friend from Bengal.   How much is coincidence and how much design is impossible to know but we are entitled to imagine Warren compromised by an indecisive and easily influenced Home Secretary.  The pressure that Warren had to endure throughout his tenure as Commissioner was exacerbated by the resignation of Monro.  Macnaghten became a senior policeman in a city that had an unequal and divided population and he forgot about being beaten up by puzzled and angry Indian natives,. Macnaghten had no previous experience as a policeman but then neither had anyone else at his level.  The amiable, affable and well connected are always able to progress.

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Managing those who have more experience and technical skills can be challenging. Macnaghten could be forgiven if he was haunted by the impact of his lack of skills. But he was as opinionated about police work, policemen and murders as he was about the meaning of classical Greek text.  His report on the Ripper murders was written in 1894.   There are two versions. One is held in Scotland Yard files, and the other is a copy made by the daughter of Macnaghten. The obsessive believe they have discovered inconsistencies but the two versions complement rather than contradict each other.   The opinions expressed in the ‘Macnaghten Memoranda’ can be summarised and need to be.  He insisted that there were just five victims and only three suspects of note. He also rejected the notion that Thomas Cutbush was Jack the Ripper.   Thomas Cutbush had serious mental health issues and was suspected of stabbing some women in their bottoms. This led some to believe he might be the Ripper. Cutbush was committed to Broadmoor Criminal Lunatic Asylum in 1891. Cutbush had odd behaviour, and a knife was found in his possession.  Macnaghten believed that Cutbush had not owned the knife long enough to have stabbed the women. His family challenged both the allegations about the stabbings and the rumour that Cutbush was the Ripper. According to the mother of Cutbush the mental health problems of Thomas did not begin until November 1888 and after the Ripper murders had ended. Although not proven it is believed that Cutbush was the nephew of a Metropolitan Police Superintendent who killed himself because of headaches, insomnia and depression.

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The three suspects that Macnagthen identified were Montague John Druitt, Aaron Kosminski and Michael Ostrog.   Macnaghten claimed that they were more likely than Cutbush to have committed the Whitechapel murders.  In the autobiography by Macnaghten, Days Of My Years, he writes ‘the Whitechapel murderer, in all probability, put an end to himself soon after the Dorset Street affair in November 1888.’  Druitt was found floating dead in the Thames the 31st of December that year but had not been seen after the 30th of November. The actual date is disputed but the difference is only three days. Druitt had been a lawyer but he left the law and became a schoolteacher. At the end of November he was dismissed from his teaching post.  Druitt was both troubled and gay. The offence that led to his dismissal from his job may have involved advances to the pupils.   There is no record though of the reason for dismissal. Druitt was an accomplished sportsman, which for many makes him an unlikely Jack the Ripper suspect.   The day after Polly Nichols was murdered Druitt played cricket for Canford against Wimborne and is reported to have ‘bowled well’. More important than his sporting ability is the lack of evidence against Druitt. Managhten wrote that the family of Druitt believed him to be the Ripper. Macnaghten is not reliable but, assuming this is true, the reaction of the Druitt family may have been a consequence of them not understanding the difficulties of their suicidal son.

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Aaron Kosminski was a paranoid schizophrenic, compulsive masturbator and misogynist. The prostitutes in Whitechapel hated him, and it boggles the mind to think the effect Kosminski would have on modern dating services. His paranoia prevented him from accepting food from anyone. He lived on the food that he found in gutters.  He weighed less than seven stone.   Kosminski may have been unpleasant company but he did not have the strength to kill anyone.  His obsession with sex also weakens the possibility of him being a suspect. A man driven by sexual fantasies and a relentless need for physical satisfaction would have not sought relief by disembowelling women wrecked by deprivation.  The Ripper did not have sex with his victims.

Michael Ostrog was a thief and confidence trickster.  Ostrog was Russian and had a beard, which may be why Macnaghten described him as a madman.  He did spend some time in a lunatic asylum but the period was short and it happened because Ostrog did not want to return to prison. The madness was feigned. Ostrog was eloquent in several languages. He was also tall. He was able to pose as an aristocrat. This makes him an unconvincing murderer of poor whores. His ambitious lifestyle and its consequences meant that he had an itinerary incompatible with the Whitechapel murders. Some occurred when he was in prison for petty theft.

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Macnaghten not only lacked the experience for his role as a senior detective there is no evidence that he developed the skills of a policeman although he was a member of a committee that investigated the use of fingerprinting.  Macnaghten should not be condemned for his misinformed beliefs.  From his remote position it would have been difficult to distinguish between genuine empirical discovery and canteen rumour. More puzzling is how he has been regarded as the authoritative opinion regarding the number of murders committed by Jack the Ripper. It is Macnaghten that decided the number was five.  Author and broadcaster Martin Fido provided the term ‘the canonical five’. And an assertion by a poorly qualified policeman easily led by the sound of his own voice and the flattery of others is now established as a basic tenet.  Macnaghten had no idea who was Jack the Ripper and neither was he entitled to claim that the Ripper killed five women. Adding the term ‘canonical five’ constitutes irresponsible mischief.  No one knows the identity of the Ripper or the precise number of his murders. It may have been as few as four and as many as fifteen.   Macnaghten died in 1921. In his life he received various honours. He was knighted in 1907 and in 1912 made a Companion of the Order of Bath.  A year later he was awarded the Kings Police Medal.  Macnaghten was a Knight Commander of the White Military Order of Spain and a Commander of the Order of the Dannebrog.  Macnaghten knew how to shake hands with people, grin and gossip. For some time now the powerful have regarded such men as chivalrous.

Howard Jackson has had seven books published by Red Rattle Books including novels, short stories and collections of film criticism.   If you are interested in original horror and crime fiction and want information about the books of Howard Jackson and the other great titles at Red Rattle Books, click here.