USA gangsters



He was a tough guy and handy with his fists.  Anyone he hit stayed down.  There was some petty crime in his youth but the young man always had entrepreneurial skills.  What the young man robbed he sold.  Because he had ambition and knew how to network and negotiate, the man established himself in business.  He managed and then owned saloons where customers could drink, gamble and pay girls for sex.  He was not averse to having relationships with sex workers.  This man owned premises and employed people.  To make sure his establishments and employees operated without hindrance he made corrupt deals with politicians and law enforcement officers.  His career is best remembered for a violent confrontation that involved several deaths.  For his enemies he had a harsh code.   When opposed by rivals he was prepared to seek homicidal vengeance.  In a bitter feud that he had with another gang, he did kill people. The name of this businessman and sometime executioner is Wyatt Earp.  He is someone that became an American hero.  Few regard Al Capone as an American hero although one writer described him as a pure American creation.  Everything written above, though, could be applied to the nature and the life of Al Capone.

Somewhere on the Internet there is an interview between Melvyn Bragg and Saul Bellow that was recorded for the South Bank Show.  The two men talk about the complex and dual nature of Chicago, how a lust for money existed alongside civic ambition and concern.  Bellow describes Chicago gangsters.  ‘If they had low cunning, there was also high mindedness.’   Perhaps Bellow was playing with words, stumbled a little on a remark that was more elegant than accurate.  Or perhaps not.  Capone was not a member of the Mafia.  He was not born in Sicily and was not obliged to follow the strict code they imposed on their members.  Apart from being required to pledge lifelong loyalty, members of the Mafia were forbidden to commit adultery.  Capone, like most men that are rich and powerful, was not faithful to his wife. There must have been times or moments when he thought of his birthplace and thought he had been fortunate.  Capone had the willpower, skills and nerve that enabled him to manage a large organisation composed of difficult characters.   Violence and its threat would have been utilised to ensure betrayal was kept to a minimum but motivation of his workforce would have required traditional management skills.  A journalist recalled visiting Capone.  The visit took place in a large hotel room which Capone was using as his office.  In the middle of the room was a desk that had seven telephones.  Most of the time that the journalist was present in the room Capone was either answering phone calls or giving advice to those that answered on his behalf.   

The philandering, parties and evenings in the jazz clubs were part of the life of Capone but being a bootlegger and running a large organisation required a work ethic. Capone claimed that he employed 7000 men, most of whom had a prison record.  Without him, argued Capone, these men would have been on the streets committing mayhem.  The figure of 7000 was an exaggeration, some of these people he would have paid for performing ad hoc tasks.  The permanent payroll, though, would have been considerable, at least 1800.   His organisation required rules of behaviour and, although all bosses have double standards, some of those rules would have applied to him.  The relatives and admirers of Capone insist that Capone would have remained in legitimate business if his father had not died when he was working out of town as a bookkeeper.  The young Capone was obliged to return to Chicago and find money to support his widowed mother and the rest of the family.  Capone sought employment from gangster Frankie Yale.  If his father had survived and Al had persisted with his office job, perhaps he would have been the man that his wife wanted him to be.  Mae Capone told her son that her husband had broken her heart.  Because all the Capone brothers were connected to crime in some way, most assume that the famous Big Al led them all into hustling on the Chicago streets.  Al, though, was the third eldest brother.  He followed Ralph into the life of petty crime.  Al became the most successful criminal in the family because of circumstance rather than eminence.  In gangster movies, Al Capone is presented either as a man that shot his way to the top, the Howard Hawks version of Scarface, or someone that was battling to control bootlegging in Chicago, the Roger Corman film The St Valentine’s Day Massacre.  Neither thesis is accurate.

Al Capone inherited rather than captured the Torrio organisation.  Capone rose through the ranks because he was loyal to Torrio and was considered to have skills beyond that of the typical thug.  If his employment was secured because he could cope with the physical demands of being a bouncer, his ascendancy in the Torrio outfit was not secured through violence.  Unlike Lucky Luciano and others, he did not kill any of his bosses.   Those that want to be sympathetic will regard Capone as loyal.  Others will suspect that Capone was a sycophant.  A ruthless man would have responded differently to the shooting of Johnny Torrio by Hymie Weiss.  The incident presented an opportunity for Capone, as the number two, to hasten the end of his boss.  Capone could have stepped aside and let the Moran gang finish what they had started.   Capone, though, moved into the hospital, where Torrio lay wounded in bed, and remained as a bedside protector until his boss had recovered.  This act of devotion inspired the scene in The Godfather movie where Michael discovers an unguarded Don Corleone in hospital.

The notion that the conflict between bootleggers in Chicago was sparked by a desire for total territorial dominance is also a myth.  Under the astute guidance of Johnny Torrio the gangs of Chicago formed a cartel.  There were borderline skirmishes and misunderstandings between unruly members but Capone as much as anyone, and like Torrio, wanted peace to prevail.  His reasoning was simple.  Violence was bad for business, and as he stated often, ‘there is more than enough to go round.’  The response from Capone to the truculent and treacherous Joe Aiello, though, was vicious.  Torrio would have perhaps been more adept than Capone at responding to the troublesome Aiello gang.  Nothing demonstrates patience and control more than the refusal of Torrio to be provoked by Dean O’Banion.  But even Torrio struggled to manage to keep the peace between the Genna and O’Banion gangs.  The St Valentine’s Day massacre is often quoted as an example of Capone savagery but what happened and whether Capone was connected to the crime merits a separate debate. 

There have been many allegations linking Capone to savage violence. Some have already been mentioned and challenged elsewhere in this series.  Rather than examining them individually here, more preferable is to acknowledge that the celebrity of Capone had to ensure that his misdemeanours were exaggerated.  It is the nature of gossip, and much of the history of crime is based on gossip from men whose survival skills depend on bravado.   As Deirdre Bair says in the essential Capone -The Life, The Legacy and Legend, her subject is an enigma.  Capone was always a contradictory character that was obliged to be misunderstood.  He set up soup kitchens to alleviate suffering in Chicago and wrote sentimental love songs when he was in prison.  Mae, his wife, did nothing to financially exploit the name of her husband after his death.  She never remarried.  Perhaps she was devoted to her husband, but perhaps her loyalty was shaped more by Catholic faith and her commitment to a family rather than a man.  Mae was shy and quiet.  Like her husband, Mae Capone is a mystery.  Additional facts reveal contradictions and inconsistencies rather than clarity  

Relying on instinct and intuition, this is how I see the man.  Capone came from a family that was poor but had sons tough enough not to be frightened of violent confrontations on the rough streets.  Violence, because of what is at stake, encourages harsh judgements being made about opposing antagonists.  Once the fists are raised the response to grievances are always disproportionate.  Present day knife crime in London is an obvious example.  Those that survive in a violent world become harsh critics too willing to condemn and punish.  They also often develop an exaggerated sense of entitlement.  Such men expect to have more than the rest, those that can be dismissed as weak or lacking courage.   This mixture of appetite and contempt would have been nurtured in Capone by not just the streets of Chicago but also by his group of tough and competitive brothers.   Yet his family loved him, and he had respect from both legitimate and illegitimate business partners.  The behaviour of Capone can be separated into three distinct areas of activity.   These are how he behaved with those people that he liked, how he responded to the internecine warfare that existed between the Chicago gangs, and the way he ensured the continuous day-to-day running of his business or criminal interests. 

It might help to think of these three distinct areas as representing three separate Capones.  Capone one, the version his family saw, appears to have been kind and sociable.   He liked large family dinners and took pleasure in seeing the relatives enjoy themselves.  Business partners found Capone amiable and trustworthy.  Capone two, the gang leader, did increase the extent of his business territory but this happened at the end of his criminal career and was more a consequence of the failure of the Moran gang to maintain a successful business than the imperialist ambitions in Capone.  Compared to the behaviour of Bugsy Siegel, Lucky Luciano and Vito Genovese, the behaviour of Capone was remarkably restrained.  Capone three, the man that ran the day to day business, has a darker personality.  The subversion by Capone, and Torrio, of political democracy and independence in Cicero showed scant regard for the locals.  The injuries to often principled individuals was on occasion horrific.  Capone was a young man determined to impose an economic order that would be beholden to him.  This damage he did, though, was not just a consequence of thuggish instincts nurtured on the streets of Chicago.  The behaviour of businessman Capone also reflects the instincts of a callous capitalist.   But his first option was to offer remuneration to those that resisted his business plans.  If that failed then violence and intimidation followed.   He was also more sensitive to the impact of collateral damage than those politicians that begin military conflicts.   

Capone was neither the richest nor the most violent gangster that has stained the history of the USA.  He became famous because he courted celebrity and, although he was not, he appeared to many to be the first of his kind.  There might be other less tangible reasons.  The years he dominated Chicago crime were between 1925 and 1931.  He became famous when he was twenty-six-years old and was sent to prison when he was thirty-two-years old.  Young outlaws are more prone to becoming legends.  And some people complement the needs of our imaginative selves more than others.  Most of us imagine Capone as a short man although he was not.  If that sounds fanciful, look at the photographs of other powerful gangsters.  They merely look like old, sly foxes.  Who knows why he is the ultimate criminal icon but for some reason that vowel stuffed name, Al Capone, once heard is never forgotten.   

Howard Jackson has had thirteen books published by Red Rattle Books including novels, short stories, travel books and collections of film criticism.  His latest book BORIS JOHNSON PFEFFELS AND PIFFLES is now available here.  



The glory for Al Capone ended on October 24 1931 when he was sentenced to eleven years in prison. Six years earlier Al Capone had inherited the Torrio organisation.  He became the most powerful bootlegger in Chicago.  After serving nearly three years of his sentence in the Leavenworth and Atlanta prisons, Capone was transferred to Alcatraz on August 1 1934.  There he joined inmates that were considered to be the most dangerous and difficult criminals in the USA.  He had been convicted, though, of nothing more than tax evasion.  Neither had Capone the prisoner been disruptive during his first three years in prison.  He spent five years at Alcatraz.  His release  from Alcatraz happened on November 16 1939.   To complete the necessary discharge papers he made a cross country journey to the prison in Lewisburg, Pennsylvania.  Mae, his wife, agreed that Capone would continue to receive medical treatment for his syphilis and that this should be administered in a hospital.  He was released to his family and then admitted to Baltimore’s Union Memorial Hospital.  Dr Moore was a specialist in the treatment of syphilis.  He also had admitting privileges to the Union Memorial.   The private room that Capone was given had a connecting door to a two room suite that was rented by Mae.   She occupied one room, and the other was used by members of the family that visited.  

Dr Moore concluded that the disease had been in the advanced ‘paretic psychosis’ stage from 1936 although he added the advanced stage might have begun at an earlier date,   Capone was now forty-years old and had been suffering from advanced syphilis for at least three years.  Dr Moore is on record as describing the treatment of Capone in Alcatraz as inadequate.  It had taken the prison medics until 1938 to administer the malaria injections that alleviated the symptoms, a treatment known as ‘fever therapy’.  When Capone entered the Union Memorial hospital he had a mental age of a seven-year-old.  He remained in the hospital for several months.  The improved treatment from Dr Moore secured some improvement.  Capone had the mental age of an eleven-year-old when he left the Baltimore hospital.  His behaviour was described as ‘silly, childish and mentally deteriorated’. Mae was pleased with both the progress and the treatment of her husband.  She purchased two weeping cherry trees for the hospital.   The trees remain in the grounds at the front of the hospital building.  Local TV reporters sometimes report their blooming as a news event.

At the family home in Miami the family physician Dr Phillips took responsibility for the care of Al Capone.  Liaison between the two doctors, though, did occur.  Dr Moore encouraged Mae to find an experienced and well-trained nurse.  Mae and the brothers of Al accepted that, because no one outside the family could be admitted to the house, they would have to control Capone by themselves.   Dr Moore recommended that the family purchase a vacant plot of land adjacent to their Miami home.  The doctor suggested that the patient could run his own personal garden.   This did not happen, presumably because Capone needed almost constant supervision.  Mae and her husband would instead wander around the Miami property.  Mae would name the various plants, and Al would remove dead leaves and do the occasional weeding.   As the condition of Capone stabilised, some non-family members were gradually allowed into the house.  A nurse was hired.  The entire Capone family was resident at Palm Island.  The brothers, sister and mother lived on the $600 that the Chicago outfit provided each week.  Palm Island, the Miami home, was a large property, and the grounds were extensive.  Mae could not afford a maid or a cleaning woman.  She took her husband to the occasional movie and sometimes to restaurants that had a secluded table.  Al gardened, swam in the pool and fished off the dock.  Within several months of being at home, Capone had gained the fifty pounds in weight that he had lost at Alcatraz. Al attended the wedding ceremony of his son. 

Sonny married Diane Ruth Casey at St Patrick’s Church on December 30 1941.  Shortly after the photographs were taken the suffering gangster was led away from the main celebration and taken back home to Palm Island.   The family needed to prevent the festivities from upsetting Capone and also to avoid the disruptive effect his unpredictable behaviour might have had on the wedding guests.  The FBI continued to watch and file reports on the Capone family for as long as Capone lived.  The government was still convinced that more unpaid taxes could be recovered.  No hidden assets, though, were discovered.  The FBI, wanting to discover titbits about the Chicago Outfit, occasionally questioned Mae about the weekly allowance that helped the family survive.   Capone spent the month between mid-August and mid-September 1941 at the Wisconsin lodge owned by brother Ralph.  Al and whoever in the family was interested fished, ate the fish they caught and played cards.  Mae remained unwilling to accept that there was no cure for the syphilitic symptoms of her husband.  She would put her hands over her ears and walk away when the doctors tried to explain.   This might reveal a stubborn and irrational nature but there must have also been confusion. Mae had also been infected with syphilis by her husband but she received regular and effective treatments throughout her life.  

The production of penicillin became widely available in 1945, and Al Capone was one of the first to receive the medicine.  It did little, though, to mitigate the impact of the disease.  Long time partner and friend Jake Guzik visited Palm Island.  He described Capone as being as ‘nutty as a fruitcake’.  In the summer of 1945 there was a second trip to the lodge in Wisconsin.  The mental age of Capone had now returned to that of a seven-year-old.  There were occasions or periods in certain days when his behaviour improved but his mental age never exceeded that of a ten-year-old.  The new childlike Capone developed a taste for Dentyne gum and licorice Sen Sen breath fresheners.  He hoarded candy bars in his bedroom.  Used to sleeping in prison beds, Al was no longer comfortable in the master bedroom at Palm Island.  He found sleeping easier when he used one of the two single beds in the small bedroom at the back of the house.  Mae slept less well without her husband.  Al had also suffered from insomnia and he experienced the occasional panic attack in the large bedroom.  Over time the panic attacks reduced and Al would occasionally return to the bedroom of his wife.   He was sleeping with Mae on January 21 1947.  She was woken at 3.30 am.  Mae noticed that the breathing of her husband had become laboured.  He was gasping for breath.  Dr Phillips arrived at Palm Island at 5.00 am.  The condition of Capone was stabilised but the heavy breathing indicated bronchial pneumonia.   Three days later, Capone was drifting in and out of consciousness.  Whatever had happened on January 21 must have shocked Mae.  As a precaution, she had the last rites administered.

Al Capone died January 1925 1947 at 7.25 pm.   The death was expected but sudden.  The death certificate of the once powerful gangster stated that bronchial pneumonia was the cause of death.   The certificate included the information that the deceased had ‘retired from his usual occupation’.   There was no mention of neurosyphilis on the death certificate. Mae never again, after the death of her husband, returned to the second floor of the house in Miami.  She slept in the bedroom of the garage apartment that was attached to Palm Island.   Inside the mansion the living room furniture was covered with sheets.  No more meals were served in the dining room.  Meals were eaten in the three porches that were attached to the main building.   The day after the death certificate was prepared, January 26 1947, the body of Al Capone was taken to the Philbrick Funeral Home in Miami Beach.  The body was embalmed, and three to four hundred people visited the home.  The visitors saw the body of a man that had lived outside the law, a larger than life figure that was already iconic within American history and fiction.  In his $2000 bronze casket, Al wore a new dark blue suit, black tie, white shirt and black and white shoes.  The body arrived in Chicago on February 1 1947.  The funeral has often been described as a modest affair but in its report of the proceedings the Chicago Tribune referred to the attendance of ‘half a hundred of the smaller fry from the vast areas which comprised the vice empire of prohibition’.  There had, of course, been grander affairs in the past and at the height of prohibition.   The burial ceremony lasted less than an hour.  The Archdiocese of Chicago forbade requiem mass but allowed a small ceremony at the graveside.  The ground was covered by snow, and a tent was erected to prevent the mourners from typical and bitter Chicago winter weather.  The tent also shielded the family from inquisitive reporters and photographers.  Digging the frozen ground where the coffin was laid had been hard work. Three hours elapsed before the gravediggers of the Mount Olivet cemetery completed their task.  The coffin of Al Capone was laid between those of his father and his brother Salvatore or ‘Frank’.  During his last years, Al Capone had attended confession and repented his previous sins.  In the same period he had often attended daily mass with his wife and mother.  Two Chicago policemen were present at the funeral but they watched from a distance.  

Andrew J Volstead was the congressman whose name had been used to identify the legislation that introduced Prohibition.  Andrew J Volstead died five days before Al Capone, the man that did as much as anyone to undermine the intentions behind the Volstead Act.  In 1950 and three years after the Capone funeral, the bodies and coffins of Al and his father and brother were moved to the western suburb Hillside and the Mount Carmel cemetery.  The original graveside stone at Mount Carmel, which was vandalised twice, has been replaced.  There is nothing in the cemetery to assist the curious that continue to visit with the purpose of locating the grave.  Most, though, find what they are looking for.  The original inscription on the gravestone has been retained.   It says, ‘My Jesus Mercy.’   Well, there is no harm in asking.  

Howard Jackson has had thirteen books published by Red Rattle Books including novels, short stories, travel books and collections of film criticism.  His latest book BORIS JOHNSON PFEFFELS AND PIFFLES is now available here.